Comprehensive Catalogue

This page will eventually be an amalgamated list of most of the sites dated by NTRDL and published in the 'Vernacular Architecture' journal; it has not been sorted by original publication date, by research programme, or by project. Given that publication has taken place over almost 30 years, there are variations in the format and layout. The list will gradually be added to. In general, the name of the site and its location is given, as is that part of the building sampled. This is followed by the timbers sampled/dated and their last measured ring dates. The t-values of any site chronology created versus the references listed are given, as is some background information about the site. KEY: C = complete sapwood retained on the sample, the last measured ring date is the felling date of the timber represented. h/s = the last measured ring on the sample is at the heartwood/sapwood boundary, only the sapwood rings are missing. Note: this section is currently under construction and as such, is not yet fully comprehensive. The bar to the right can be used to navigate to a specific county.

+ Bedfordshire

No sites have been added yet for Bedfordshire

+ Berkshire

BRACKNELL FOREST, Winkfield, St Mary's Church (SU 904 724) Tower

(a) Lower (flat) roof Felling date: 1628

(b) Upper (pitched) roof Felling date: 1628; 1780-1805

(a) Joists (8/8) 1616(3); 1625(17, 19); 1628(16╝C 19C, 20C, 20C, 20╝C)

(b) Common rafters (1/10) 1607(h/s); East-west beam (1/1) 1771(6); Undated: Base beams; Diagonal rafters.


St Mary's Church is believed to have its origins in the twelfth century, though the present church dates mostly to the fourteenth century. The brick tower at the west end was built in 1629 as a replacement for a wooden one which was demolished at that time. This brick tower is believed to have had a flat roof originally, but at some later date this was covered by a pyramidal pitched roof. The timbers of the flat roof are built into the brick walling of the rectangular tower. They consist of wall plates and a large east-west main bridging beam set atop the wall plate at each end. From either side of the bridging beam spring a series of common joists, running north-south, which also rest on the top of the wall plates. The pyramidal pitched roof comprises a rectangular setting of sill or base beams which rest on the common joists of the flat roof, not on the wall top of the tower. From the four corners diagonal main rafters rise to the centre point. Common rafters then rise from the base beams to meet the diagonal rafters. Some of these timbers show evidence of reuse.

WINDSOR, Windsor Castle, No 8 Canon's Cloisters (SU 973 768) First storey floor

Felling date range: after 1298

likely fourteenth century Floorboards (2/2) 1237, 1283; joists (0/8).

Site Master (a) and (b) 1165-1283 (t = 8.0 ST ALBANS CATH, HERTS; 7.4 IGHTHAM MOTE, KENT; 7.2 CHICHESTER CATH, WEST SUSSEX) This is one of a number of lodgings built between 1352 and 1355 by Edward III erected for a community of canons and priest vicars serving his newly established college of St George at Windsor Castle, a function that it still serves today. Squeezed in around a courtyard between the twelfth century great hall of Henry II palace and the Dean's cloisters these lodgings were built in timber-frame with two stories, the upper floor jettied out over the lower to create an internal cloister walk at ground level. Although much obscured by later extensions and adaptations much of the medieval timber framing survives today and is likely the earliest surviving example of timber-framed colligate architecture in Britain. No 8 comprises a range of four large and two small rooms, being two storeys above a basement, with an attic storey over. Recent repair work to the ground floor ceiling exposed the series of east-west joists overlain by thin oak boards.

WINDSOR, Windsor Castle, 25 The Cloisters (Denton's Common) (SU 970 770),

Roof & Floor frame Felling date range: 1226-51

Site Master 1146-1212 (t = 7.9 London Fleet Valley; 6.6 St Albans Cathedral, Herts; 5.5 Southern England); 1137-1196 (t = 7.2 Siddington Tithe Barn, Siddington, Glos; 7.0 Bristol Bridge, Somerset; 7.0 Goucester Blackfriars)

This building stands in the Lower Ward of Windsor Castle, midway between the Winchester tower and the Curfew tower on the north curtain wall. Its position at the west end of the Great Hall, suggests a coeval chamber block to that hall. On the basis of documentary evidence it is known that the hall and chamber block were built, along with other associated buildings, in the 1160s, during the reign of Henry II. Further work in this area, including alterations to the chamber block, was undertaken in 1220-40, during the reign of Henry III. Fragments of these later-twelfth/early thirteenth century structures were incorporated into the sixteenth-century building known as Denton's Commons. The building contains the partial remains of a scissor braced roof. This type of roof framing is normally dated to the thirteenth century but continues into the middle of the fourteenth century. Here the setting of the timbers on their narrow sides, and the close setting of the frames are possibly archaic features as is the use of 'open' notched-lap joints. A. J. Arnold, R. E. Howard, and C. D. Litton, With an introductory contribution from Tim Tatton-Brown, 'Tree-Ring Analysis of Timbers from 25 The Cloisters, (Denton's Common), Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire', CfA report 82/2004.

WINDSOR, Windsor Castle, Dean's Cloister, Accounts Office (SU 973 765),

Roof & Floor Felling date range: 1511-36

Site Master 1437-1501 (t = 7.8 England London; 5.7 26 Westgate Street, Gloucester; 5.3 Restoration House, Rochester, Kent)

On the basis of documentary evidence it is known that the Dean's Cloister, adjacent to St George's Chapel was originally built between 1350-3. It consists of a rectangular covered walk, lit by fine tracery windows, enclosing a small garden with a fountain. The Accounts Office, a first-floor timber-framed extension to number 2, Canon's Cloister, situated over the west end of the north range of the Cloister, was thought to be dated to c 1490. The roof of the northern range, above the Account's Office has a ridge beam, purlins, wall plates, and common rafters as well as ceiling joists. On the basis of stylistic evidence in the form of stone and brickwork, construction of the original roof is likely to have taken place in the early-sixteenth century. A. J. Arnold, R. E. Howard, and C. D. Litton, 'Tree-Ring Analysis of Timbers from the Roof of the Accounts Office, Dean's Cloister, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire', CfA report 2/2005.

+ Buckinghamshire

HALTON, 15 The Village (SP 874 100) Roof and ceiling

Felling date: 1678/9

Wall posts (3/4) 1670(12); 1678(20C; 34C); Wall plate (1/1) 1672(14); Collar (1/1) 1663; Principal rafter (1/1) 1642(14); Ceiling beam (1/1) 1667(12); Undated: Purlins.


This building was originally a two-bay structure, with three lightweight principal rafter with tiebeam and collar trusses, with central fireplace, probably always of two floors plus an attic. The principal rafters support single through-purlins, these in turn supporting 10 light common rafter pairs (without collars) to each bay. Straight braces rise to the purlins from the principal rafters (removed on the middle truss), morticed to the rafters but simply pegged to the backs of the purlins. The trusses are supported by main wall posts braced to the wall plates and formerly to the tiebeams. Sampling and analysis commissioned by the owners.

BOURNE END, Hedsor Wharf, Saunders Wharf (SU 895 875)

(a) Reused timbers Felling date: after c 1230; 1450-75

(b) Primary structure Felling date: 1561

(a) Queen post (1/1) 1214; Collar (1/1) 1435(h/s);

(b) Principal rafters (3/3) 1540(h/s); 1561(31C; 40C); Purlins (1/3) 1549(h/s); Undated: Tiebeam;


Saunders Wharf is one of the two principal buildings on the Hedsor Wharf site. It is thought to have originally been a two-bay structure formed by three principal rafter with tiebeam and collar trusses. The principal rafters are reduced in size at collar level. The roof trusses are supported by main wall posts from which spring braces to the tiebeams, with queen struts rising from the tiebeams to the collars. The collars support single purlins to each roof slope. There would have been windbraces between the principal rafters of each truss and the purlins. Sampling and analysis commissioned by John Stark and Crickmay Partnership on behalf of the owner.

+ Cambridgeshire

No sites have been added yet for Cambridgeshire


SALFORD, Taylorson Street, Ordsall Hall (SJ 815 973)

(a) East wing roof Felling date range: 1348-73

(b) Great Hall and link block Felling date: 1512

(c) Reused fireplace bressumer Felling date; 1461

(d) Annex Felling dates: after 1534, after 1549

Site Master (a) 1076-1345 (t = 7.9 England; 7.1 Brecon Cathedral, Powys; 6.9 Carlisle Castle, Cumbria) 1368-1534 (b), (c), and (d) (t = 8.6 the Gables, Little Carlton, Notts; 8.3 Offerton Hall, Offerton, Derbys; 7.7 Wetton Church, Staffs)

The earliest remaining part of the building is the two bays of a once much longer east wing, thought to have been built by Sir John Radcliffe (1300-62). At some time in the early-seventeenth century a three-storey timber-framed wing was added to the south-east of the east wing. Little timber work now remains in this 'annex', as it has been replaced by later brick-work. A brick built west wing was added to the west end of the early sixteenth century Great Hall in 1639. It is uncertain whether the Great Hall and the new west wing were directly connected by the west (service) cross wing of the Great Hall, hereafter called the 'link block', or whether there initially existed a gap between the two parts. A. J. Arnold, R. E. Howard, and C. D. Litton, 'Tree-Ring Analysis of Timbers from Ordsall Hall, Taylorson Street, Salford, Greater Manchester', CfA report 49/2004.


LANSALLOS, Church of St Ildierna (SX 172 515) Roofs and Pews

(a) South Aisle Felling date range: 1483-1508

(b) Chancel Felling date range: 1519-44

(c) Porch Felling date range: 1510-35

(d) North Aisle Felling date range: 1507-32; 1524-49

(e) Nave Felling date range: 1514; 1521-46

(f) Pews Felling date range: 1507-32; 1521-46; 1538-63

(a) Lower Archbrace (3/13) 1465(h/s); 1467(h/s); 1471(h/s)

(b) Rafter (1/2) 1504(h/s); Undated: Lower Archbrace, Upper Archbrace, Collars, Rafter;

(c) Upper Archbrace (2/3) 1487; 1498(03); Lower Archbrace (4/4) 1445; 1477; 1493(h/s); 1505(09); Undated: Rafters;

(d) Upper Archbrace (3/4) 1482; 1490(h/s); 1494(h/s) Lower Archbrace (6/8) 1441; 1475; 1491(h/s); 1493(h/s); 1509(h/s); 1512(03); Rafters (2/5) 1509(h/s, h/s); Undated: Stub tie; Collar;

(e) Upper archbrace (3/4) 1482; 1493(h/s); 1494(h/s); Lower archbrace (6/11) 1473; 1491(h/s); 1493(h/s)1499(02); 1509(03); 1514(32C); Collar (1/1) 1496(h/s); Undated: Rafters;

(f) Ends (10/10) 1485; 1486; 1492(h/s, h/s); 1493(h/s); 1509(01); 1511(h/s, 05); 1514(10); 1525(02); Seats (1/3) 1505(02); Undated: Post;

Site Masters (a) - (e) 1355-1514 (t = 8.9 WALES AND WEST MIDLANDS; 10.4 ST VEEP, CORNWALL; 9.5 MERCER'S HALL, GLOS; (f) 1407-1525 (t = 7.5 PENDENNIS CASTLE, NR FALMOUTH, CORNWALL; 7.1 ST VEEP, CORNWALL; 7.0 DEVON COUNTY)

The present church was dedicated in AD 1321 but underwent extensive reconstruction, including the aisles and tower, about 100 years later, and so is generally described as a fifteenth-century church. Restorations were undertaken in AD 1883-4 and in the early-twentieth century. The pews have been stylistically dated to between AD 1490-1520, although the present work indicates that some are rather later. The carvings on the ends are largely Renaissance scroll-work in a Gothic framework. In February 2005, a fire was deliberately started in the church damaging, amongst other things, the wagon roofs, of which five sections have been dated.

POUNDSTOCK, The Gildhouse (SX 202 994)

(a) Roof Felling date: 1543

(b) First-floor frame Felling date range: 1536-58

(a) Purlins (4/5) 1501(h/s); 1515(h/s); 1537(41); 1543(47C); Principal rafters (5/7) 1489; 1503(h/s); 1504(h/s); 1510(h/s); 1536(30)

(b) Transverse beam (2/8) 1525(4); 1535(14); Common joists (2/4) 1514(h/s); 1517(h/s);


This grade 1 listed building is constructed of stone rubble to first-floor level and of cob above, and stands in the south-west corner of the churchyard, its north gable end deeply terraced into the hill slope of the site. It is of ten bays incorporating eleven A-frame trusses with slightly cambered collars, the principal rafters having curved feet set into wall plates. It has a threaded diagonal ridge and three tiers of threaded purlins. The frame of the first floor comprises a series of large transverse ceiling beams, aligned east-west, in approximately the same positions as the roof trusses above, with north-south common joists.

EAST LOOE, Church of St Martin (SX 255 531) Roofs

(a) South aisle Felling date range: 1468-93

(b) Chancel Felling date range: 1465-90; 1514-39

(c) North transept Felling date range: 1490-1505

(d) Nave Felling date range: 1532-57

(e) South transept Felling date range: 1591-1616

(a) Archbraces (1/6) 1443. Undated: Rafters;

(b) Archbraces (6/8) 1450(h/s); 1451(h/s); 1454(h/s); 1470; 1478(h/s); 1499(h/s); Stub Tie (1/3) 1455(h/s); Rafters (4/6) 1450(h/s); 1461(h/s); 1487(h/s); 1489(h/s);

(c) Archbraces (1/5) 1455; Rafters (2/4) 1460; 1473(h/s);Stub Tie (1/1) 1477(h/s);

(d) Rafters (6/8) 1456; 1461; 1481; 1508; 1516(h/s); 1518(h/s); Stub Tie (1/1) 1515(h/s); Archbrace (1/1) 1518(h/s);

(e) Rafters (7/8) 1550; 1556; 1560; 1561; 1573(h/s); 1574(h/s); 1576(h/s; 1580(h/s); Stub ties (2/3) 1560; 1574(h/s).

Site Masters (a), (b), (c), and (d) 1363-1518 (t=9.3 ST VEEP, CORNWALL; 7.3 WALES AND WEST MIDLANDS; 7.2 ENGLAND); (e) 1445-1580 (t=7.0 LODGE PARK, ALDSWORTH, GLOS; 6.5 LACOCK ABBEY, WILTS; 6.5 26 WESTGATE STREET, GLOUCESTER).

Wagon roofs are particular feature of south-west England, there being many other examples of the type in the region (cf Lansallos, above). Although they are generally dated to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, their detailed chronology is not clearly defined. At St Martin's, the variety of wagon roofs suggests either clear phasing or alternatively differences in detail due to the relative importance of the different parts of the building. Using the complexity of the roofs as a guide to their dating, the nave and chancel roofs appeared to be the earliest roofs, with the south aisle roof next, followed by the north and then the south transept roofs. It was believed that the original nave and chancel were remodelled and given new roofs in the late-fifteenth century, and that the south aisle was also altered and extended at about this time; this latter work may have advanced to a second stage to form a south chancel aisle. A chapel or 'north transept; was also apparently added in the late-fifteenth century. The south transept chapel was thought to be slightly later, but still pre-Reformation. The nave and chancel roofs are richly carved on their principal trusses, purlins and wallplates. A step down from the nave roof and the chancel roof appears to be more than just a statement of ritual distinction or hierarchy. A number of stylistic changes may also represent phase changes. The main difference is that the trailing carvings on the nave roof offer tremendous variety of detail along the length of the roof whereas the trailing vine detail of the chancel roof is consistent and repetitive.

ST. VEEP, nr Lostwithiel, Church of St Ciricus and St Julitta (SX 139 549)

(a) Nave/chancel roof & south aisle Felling date/range: 1453-78

(b) North aisle Felling date/range: 1525-50

(a) Arch brace (4/12) 1433(h/s); 1439 (h/s, h/s), 1440 (h/s); Collar (2/3) 1438(h/s), 1440(h/s); Rafter (5/7) 1417, 1431, 1434(h/s), 1440 (h/s, h/s)

(b) Arch brace (2/2) 1485, 1497; Collar (1/2) 1508(h/s); Rafter (8/8) 1474, 1482, 1486,1505(h/s), 1510(h/s), 1512(h/s, h/s, h/s).

Site Master (a), (b), (c) 1352-1512 (t = 7.3 ST. BRAIVEL'S CASTLE, GLOS; 7.1 PENDENNIS CASTLE, CORNWALL; 6.6 LANCIN, SOMERSET)

The nave of this grade 1 listed church is thought to have its origins in the Norman period. Transepts were added c. 1336 and later still the west end tower, stylistically of the early fifteenth century. A new wagon-roof covering, a particular feature of South-West England, was given to the nave/chancel and remained undated prior to this analysis. A new full sized South aisle was also added, under its own wagon-roof. A later extension to this aisle, at its east end, was sampled and analysed but failed to date. Another aisle on the north side of the nave was also added, again under a wagon-roof.


NEAR CARLISLE, Brampton, Lanercost Priory, Dacre Hall (NY 556 637)

(a) Reused roof timbers Felling date range: 1271-96

(b) Hall roof, northern end Felling date: 1465

(c) Hall roof, southern end Felling date range: 1502-27

(d) First-floor frame Felling date: c 1507

Site Master (a) 977-1256 (t = 7.2 East Midlands; 7.5 St Hugh's Choir, Lincoln Cathedral; 8.4 Carlisle Cathedral, Cumbria); (b), (c) and (d) 1350-1504 (t = 7.8 Askerton Castle, Kirkcambeck, Cumbria, 7.6 Hitchins Onset, Scaleby, nr Carlisle, Cumbria, 7.1 Witton Hall Barn, Witton Gilbert, Tyne and Wear)

Dacre Hall is all that remains substantially above ground of the late twelfth-century cloistral buildings of the Augustinian Priory at Lanercost. The present hall roof is unlikely to be the original one and is believed to belong to the mid-sixteenth century or another suggestion is that it is a seventeenth century replacement. The roof consists of eight king post trusses with diagonal struts from tiebeams to principal rafters and carry double purlins, which in turn carry smaller common rafters. There are slightly curved braces from the king posts to the ridge beam. The floor frame is made up of seven large east-west bridging beams which carry close-set joists in half-trenched mortices. The bridging beams have mortices on one of their side faces and shallow groove-mortice in the other to allow boards to be inserted into them to form a wooden ceiling. A. J. Arnold, R. E. Howard, and C. D. Litton, 'Tree-Ring Analysis of Timbers from Dacre Hall, Lanercost Priory, Brampton, Near Carlisle, Cumbria', CfA report 48/2004. No sites have been added yet for Cumb


BOLSOVER, Bolsover Castle, the Riding School (SK 471 706)

(a) Riding arena wall posts and adjacent Forge room Felling date range: 1664-82

(b) Riding arena corbels Felling date range: 1745-61

(c) Riding arena roof Felling date range: 1756-61

(d) Harness room roof Felling date range: 1756-81

(a) Post (4/5) 1629, 1638(h/s), 1645(h/s), 1663(17); Beam (2/2) 1632, 1644(h/s).

(b) Corbels (8/8) 1696(5), 1721(h/s), 1730(2), 1731(1), 1742(11+6nm), 1743(11+5nm), 1744(h/s, 3+22nm).

(c) Brace truss (6/8) 1575, 1604, 1638(h/s), 1640(h/s), 1645(h/s), 1653(14); Queen post (0/1); Tie-beam (2/2) 1644(h/s), 1646(h/s).

(d) purlins (5/5) 1645, 1710, 1738(h/s), 1741(h/s), 1744(h/s); Principal rafters (1/2) 1641; Collar (1/1) 1629.

Site Master: 1494-1744 (t = 16.2 E. MID; 11.0 BREWHO YARD, NOTTM; 10.9 RUFFORD MILL, NOTTS)

The castle that stands at Bolsover today is largely the result of the complete rebuild between 1608 and 1640 of the originally Norman foundation by Sir Charles Cavendish and his heir, William, the first Duke of Newcastle. Built in a romantic medieval style, with angled turrets and battlements, this included a new keep, known as the Little Castle, and to its southwest a Terrace Range with commanding views of the valley below. Adjoining and at right angles to its south eastern side Sir William built the Riding School, containing an arena, harness room and forge. Though the school was completed prior to the Civil War, much of the present roof is a single-phase post Civil War repair. The Arena roof consists of twelve tie beam trusses, in which wall-posts spring from wooden corbels set in the walls. Curved braces run from the wall posts to the tie beams, above which queen posts rise to collars hung with decorative pendants. It would appear from mortice cuts in to the two surviving tie beam trusses that at one time the arena was floored at tie-beam level.

KIRK IRETON, The Barley Mow (SK 266 501)

(a) Principal rafters Felling date: 1600-30 (b) Purlins Felling date: 1675-1700

(a) and (b) Principal rafters (2/2) 1588(h/s); 1593(5); Purlins (2/3) 1663(h/s); 1669(8); Undated: Collar; Ridge; Ceiling beam.


The Barley Mow public house is a fine example of the late Derbyshire Jacobean style, built with three storeys, its gabled dormers with ball finials, mullioned windows, and doorway with a heavy, slightly arched, head. Although the date '1683' is inscribed on a stone on the front elevation, this is most likely to commemorate a later redevelopment and alteration of an existing structure. The fragmentary remains of this earlier building can be found inside, including the central truss with upper and lower collars. The trusses which probably existed at either gable end are now lost, though that to the east gable could possibly be buried in the stonework. The present roof is now supported by a ridge-beam and upper and lower purlins (with evidence of reuse). Sampling and analysis commissioned by the owners.


EXETER, Exeter Cathedral, Chapel of St John the Baptist (SX 921 925), Roof

(a) Primary timbers Felling date range: 1806-27

(b) Reused/remnant timbers Felling date range: 1303-28

(a) Joists (3/3) 1786(h/s); 1803(8); 1805(24);

(b) Joists (2/2) 1233; 1288(h/s).


Since 1983 an extensive programme of sampling and analysis has been undertaken on the timbers of the high roofs of the Cathedral (the presbytery, the choir, and the western bays). In 2005 grant-aided work was begun on the roof of the Chapel of St John the Baptist, to the east side of the southern central tower. This involved the removal of the lead covering and the lifting of the boards beneath, exposing the timber structure of the roof and making the beams within more accessible. Although no specific early historic fabric records relate directly to this roof, it was believed to date from the early fourteenth century and was thought potentially to be all of one phase. This is now shown to be incorrect with the tree-ring dates indicating that it was extensively repaired in the early 19th century.

POLTIMORE, Poltimore House (SX 9678 9635)

(a) North range roof Felling date: 1559

(b) East range roof and stud posts Felling date range: 1544-69

(c) South and east ground and first floor frames Felling date range: 1547-72

(d) South range roof Felling date: 1725

(a) Purlin (5/5) 1534(h/s), 1536(h/s, h/s), 1539(h/s), 1559(32C); Queen post (2/2) 1533(h/s), 1538(h/s); Principal rafter (3/4) 1503, 1507, 1535(h/s); Common rafter (0/1).

(b) Main joist (3/3) 1509, 1517(h/s), 1540(h/s); Common rafter (2/2) 1530(h/s), 1542(h/s), Purlin (2/4) 1509, 1526(h/s), Principal rafter (3/3)1524(h/s), 1527(h/s), 1701(h/s), Collar (1/2) 1535(h/s); Stud post (2/2)1520(h/s), 1529(h/s).

(c) Common joist (7/10) 1468, 1527(h/s), 1536(1), 1547(21), 1597, 1651(h/s), 1660(h/s); Main joist (4/5) 1533(h/s), 1534(9), 1554(10), 1684(h/s).

(d) Principal rafter (6/7) 1662, 1686, 1698, 1702(h/s), 1719(17), 1721(14); Purlin 3/3)1672, 1707(h/s), 1725(23C); Collar (1/1) 1709(h/s); Wallplate (1/1) 1722(20).

Site Master (a), (b) and (c) 1380 - 1559 (t = 6.3 LONDON, 6.7 PYE CORNER, OXON, 5.8 WELLS CATH); (b), (c) and (d) 1534-1725 (t = 8.2 LONDON; 7.1 WORC. CATH; 7.1 MANOR HO, TEMPLECOMBE, SOMS)

The home of the Bampfylde family, this courtyard house is thought to be of later sixteenth century origin. It has been extensively extended and remodelled in the late seventeenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries until the internal courtyard is now almost completely filled. The oldest surviving part of the building is the east wing and the three-gabled eastern part of the north wing, along with a polygonal stair turret. The presence of the stair turret suggests the possibility of an originally quadangular plan for this first building. The south front has eleven bays, with the central three projecting slightly and is now known to have been built around 1725. The west wing, which closed the court, is thought to date to around 1800, although the dendrochronology has not confirmed this. The tree-ring analysis has dated timbers from the ground and first-floor frames in the south and east ranges to the mid-sixteenth, second half of the seventeenth and late seventeenth/early eighteenth centuries. In the case of those from the south range (dated to 1724) these must represent the secondary use of timbers.


No sites have been added yet for Dor


HEIGHINGTON, Middridge Grange, Shildon Road (NZ 2450 2471)

(a) Phase one eastern cross-wing Felling date: 1578

(b) Eastern cross-wing alterations Felling date: 1681

(a) Rafter (4/4) 1493, 1505, 1558(5), 1559(1); Purlin (2/3) 1526, 1544(h/s); Tiebeam (2/3) 1551(h/s), 1558(4); Floor/ceiling joist (9/12) 1470, 1516, 1547(h/s), 1555(h/s), 1563(h/s), 1563(h/s), 1566(h/s), 1567(h/s), 1578(20C).

(b) Pine ceiling joist (2/12) 1681(88C, 92C).

Site Master (a) 1395-1559 (t = 9.7 1-2 THE COLLEGE, CATH PRE, DURHAM; 7.3 IVY HO, CLEVELAND; 7.2 TUNSTALL HALL FARM, CLEVELAND); 1427-1516 (t = 7.7 AYDON CAS, NHUMB; 7.7 DILSTON CAS, NHUMB; 5.8 ENGLAND); 1470-1578 (t = 7.9 DILSTON CAS, NHUMB; 7.8 AYDON CAS, NHUMB; 7.0 N LEES HALL, DERBYS). (b) 1528-1681 (t = 6.0 GRAVSTEN, SWEDEN; 5.9 STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN; 5.4 DANSON HO, KENT (IMPORT))

Originally this building seems to have been 'u' shaped in plan, consisting of a central range of two storeys flanked at both ends, east and west, by projecting cross-wings. Towards the end of the seventeenth century the space between the two projecting wings was infilled turning it into a triple-gabled house. Alterations to the main house were also undertaken at this time, as evidenced by the changes in the fenestration and movement of passages and doors in the surviving eastern cross-wing, now the only original surviving 'phase one' part of the Grange left. Further changes were made in the eighteenth century. During the nineteenth century two fires destroyed the western cross-wing and the hall range. Since this time there have been repairs and additions to the remaining buildings.

WOLSINGHAM, Low Harperley Farmhouse (NZ 119 349)

(a) Main building attic and roof Felling date: 1565

(b) Main building west wing Felling date ranges: 1524-48 1576-1601

(c) Main building east wing Felling date range: 1563

(d) East cottage Felling date: 1606

(e) West cottage Felling date ranges: 1562-83 1595-1620

(a) Redundant sole piece (1/4) 1510; Common rafter (9/9) 1495, 1519, 1539(h/s), 1542(3), 1544(h/s), 1547(h/s), 1559(37), 1565(28C), 1573(h/s); Floor joist (4/5) 1507, 1550(5), 1559(7), 1560(9); Queen post (5/7) 1511, 1515, 1517, 1542(h/s), 1554(h/s); Principal rafter (5/7) 1549, 1552(4), 1568(h/s), 1582(h/s), 1587(h/s); Tiebeam (1/2) 1490; Purlin (4/4) 1538(h/s), 1540(h/s), 1560(22), 1565(29C); Collar (1/1) 1575(h/s); Queen strut (1/2) 1540(h/s); Door jamb (2/2) 1535(h/s), 1537(h/s); Door frame top (0/1).

(b) Bridging beam (2/2) 1475, 1502; Ground floor ceiling joist (12/12) 1451, 1453, 1474, 1484, 1490, 1500, 1523(15), 1528, 1552(h/s), 1560(7), 1569(h/s), 1572(2).

(c) Common joist (6/11) 1446, 1536, 1553(17), 1554, 1563(10C, 21C); Main joist (1/1) 1563(22C).

(d) Principal rafter (0/1); Collar (1/1) 1510; Purlin (3/4) 1485, 1544, 1586(h/s); Ridgebeam (1/1) 1582(h/s); Common rafter (4/5) 1585(h/s), 1594(17), 1601(17), 1604(20+2c).

(e) Principal rafter (0/4); Purlin (5/5) 1543(h/s), 1551(16), 1573(h/s), 1582(h/s), 1584(h/s); Collar 1452, 1540(h/s); joist (3/3) 1470, 1504, 1516.

Site Master 1356-1604 (t = 11.0 1-2 THE COLLEGE, DURHAM; 9.7 AYDON CAS, NHUMB; 8.7 BULL HOLE BYRE, DURHAM)

A regionally and nationally important grade II listed, high status medieval manor house. Harperley is recorded as far back as 1183, and from the fourteenth century onwards was held by the Conyers family, of the Bishop of Durham. The surviving building today is complex and contains substantial portions of the medieval house from the thirteenth/early fourteenth century, including the whole of the east wing to roof height. Seen today, it has two storeys and attic to the main building, made up of a small central range and two flanking wings (east and west), all brought under a large single all-embracing roof form. To the east and the west are later additions of smaller two-storey ranges, the east and west cottages, independently roofed. However, though the development of this site is not easily deduced as yet, it seems likely that the original house had three storeys on three ranges, at least two of which were independently roofed. During the mid-sixteenth century the house under went substantial remodelling. Chief among these changes was the reordering of floor levels and the necessitated changes in wall openings with doors and windows inserted, including arch-headed mullioned windows in the north and south walls. The late sixteenth/early seventeenth centuries saw yet further remodelling at the house, which most likely saw the removal of more of the original buildings with the building of a new west wing. During the eighteenth century the house as the family seat was abandoned in favour of a new Georgian manor and Haperley became a lower status farm entailing radical rationalisation of the building. It was previously thought that both the west and east cottages belonged to this building phase, although the felling dates of the roof timbers are substantially earlier. However, the presence of reused timbers of these dates elsewhere on the site should perhaps, urge caution until further investigation has been undertaken.

NEAR BISHOP AUCKLAND, Hunwick, Hunwick Hall Farm (NZ 189 324),

North and East ranges Felling date range: 1501-26

Site Master 1402-97 (t = 10.7 Kepier Hospital, Durham, 8.9 Witton Hall, Witton Gilbert, Co Durham, 8.5 Seaton Holme, Easington, Co Durham)

Hunwick Hall is on the site of a medieval manor complex dating back to at least the latter half of the twelfth century. The northern end of the East range roof consists of five truncated principal rafter trusses with tiebeams and collars. Each pitch carries double purlins, the lower ones trenched into the back of the principal rafters, the upper ones clasped between the collars and the common rafters above. Later alterations are the insertion of slightly curved struts from tiebeams to principals and short kingposts above the collars. The roof of the North range has three building phases, the easternmost one has six truncated principal trusses as in the East range, the central part again has truncated principal rafter trusses, and the westernmost end contain a modern softwood roof. A. J. Arnold, R. E. Howard, and C. D. Litton, 'Tree-Ring Analysis of Timbers from Hunwick Hall Farm, Hunwick, Near Bishop Auckland, County Durham', CfA report 47/2004.


PRITTLEWELL, 255 Victoria Avenue (TQ 875 875)

Felling date: 1407

Joist (1/2) 1407(15C); Floor (1/1) 1407(17C); Beam (1/1) 1389; Door post (1/1) 1373; Unmarked (2/3) 1396(14), 1397(17).

Site Master 1330-1407 (t = 5.9 NOAH'S ARK, KENT; 5.1 KENT; 5.1 ELY CATH, CAMBS); 1311-1373 (t=7.5 London, 7.0 Ware Priory, Herts, 6.7 Stowmarket Church, Suffolk)

This building has two gables on the west front, one larger than the other, and a two-window range, double hung sashes with single vertical glazing bars. On the ground floor is a twentieth century shop front. The samples for this analysis were provided as sliced samples by the owner of the building. As such the lab did not chose where they came from, nor was it possible to get more than a vague location for the samples. However, assuming that the samples are part of the original structure it would seem likely that construction took place at or very soon after the felling date above. This work was commissioned and paid for by the owner of the property.


CIRENCESTER, St John's Hospital and Chantry (SP 215 237)

(a) Presumed reused timbers Felling date range: 1202-25

(b) Primary timbers Felling date: 1436

(c) 'Inserted' timbers Felling date: 1436

(a) Collars (2/2) 1200(16); 1201(16);

(b) Collars (3/4) 1406(h/s); 1425(14); 1436(30C); Rafters (7/14) 1336; 1350; 1354; 1369; 1430(22); 1436(35C,35C); Undated: Ashlar; tiebeam;

(c) Half rafter (1/1) 1370; Nailed-on braces (3/3) 1358; 1380; 1412(h/s); Undated: Strut.


St John's Hospital and Chantry, founded by Henry I in about 1133, is located on Spitalgate Lane, to the north of Cirencester's medieval abbey precinct. Surviving from the ancient hospital is the main portion of the old infirmary hall, but without its side aisles. The extant roof structure includes 40 trussed rafter pairs, thought to represent a single phase of construction. The rafter couples are halved at the apex, without a ridge-piece. Each end of the collars is fitted into a slot in the rafter and fixed with a single peg. The ashlar pieces are jointed to the rafters in a similar fashion as seen elsewhere within the roof, scarcely a half lap and single pegged. Other timbers were clearly inserted, probably in a bid to strengthen the roof. These include a pair of crude braces fitted to one of the rafter couples and supported on an inserted tiebeam, and 'aisle purlins' on both sides of the roof. These are supported by braces rising from inserted tiebeams. Additonally, half rafters have been added throughout the roof. It appears from the dates that the extant roof structure dates to the second quarter of the fifteenth century, but that it incorporates at least two early twelfth century, presumably, reused timbers. The few 'inserted' timbers dated were found to have the same felling date as the primary roof timbers. A possible explanation for this is that these 'inserted' timbers are relocated from other parts of the roof or contemporaneous work elsewhere in the building.

KINGSWOOD, 7 Wotton Road, New Inn House (ST 748 919)

(a) Roof of north-east and south west wings and ground and first-floor ceiling joists Felling date: 1495

(b) Roof of infill between north-east and south-west wings Felling date: 1519

Site Master (a) and (b) 1191-1519 (t = 12.8 England, London; 12.2 Kingswood Abbey, Gatehouse, Glos; 9.2 Lodge Park, Aldsworth, Glos)

This building is believed to stand within the precincts or boundary of the Cistercian Abbey founded at Kingswood in Gloucestershire in 1131. L-shaped in plan, with one arm extending north-south and facing onto Wotton Road and the other east-west along the southern bank of the mill stream and comprising an upper and lower storey, and large attic open to the rafters. The front and side ranges have matching tenoned purlin roofs. Roof trusses are of identical form throughout and comprise a pair of heavy principal rafters linked by a collar. The feet of the principal rafters are morticed into the ends of the second floor transverse beams. The roof has two tiers of purlins, curved wind braces at each level, and a ridge piece. A. J. Arnold, R. E. Howard, and C. D. Litton, 'Tree-Ring Analysis of Timbers from New Inn House, 7 Wotton Road, Kingswood, Gloucestershire', CfA report 62/2004.


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CANTERBURY, St Peter's Lane, Blackfriars, Guesthouse (TR 148 581)

Felling date: 1350

Braces (2/4) 1315(h/s); 1346(22); Soulaces (2/5) 1322(h/s); 1350(22C); Collars (2/3) 1324(h/s); 1350(33C). Undated: Collar Purlin; Rafters.


The Guesthouse is built on an island given to the Dominican friars by King Henry III in the thirteenth century, separated by the River Stour from the remainder of the Monastery buildings. The building is of four bays and the roof has three trusses of crown post construction with braces rising to soulaces and the collar purlin.

CANTERBURY, 8-9 The Parade/25-26 St Margaret's Street (TR 149 578)

Felling date: 1377/8

Braces (3/3) 1340; 1353(h/s); 1365(17c); Common rafters (3/4) 1353(h/s); 1354(h/s); 1374(18c); Purlins (2/2) 1350(h/s); 1360(5); Collar (1/1) 1334; Crown post (1/1) 1351(h/s); Undated: Principal rafter.

Site Master 1247-1374 (t=6.8 KENT-88; 6.4 ENGLAND LONDON; 6.3 LOWER NEWLANDS, TEYNHAM, KENT).

The building which now forms 8-9 The Parade and 25-26 St Margaret's Street lies at the junction of the Parade and St Margaret's Street, in the centre of Canterbury. The building comprises two ranges set at right-angles to each other to form an L-shaped plan and is three stories high, the upper floors jettied towards the street. Both ranges are four bays in length and each is covered by a conventional crown-post roof. The roofs of the two ranges terminate in gables at the corner of the property, the angle between the two roofs being turned by an unusual pyramidal arrangement of rafters. The joists and beams of the jettied floors of the building survive for the most part. On each floor, the corner has a dragon beam,. Sampling and analysis commissioned by Canterbury Archaeological Trust Ltd on behalf of the owners prior to conservation and redevelopment.

FRINDSBURY, Manor Farm Barn (TQ 747 700)

Felling date: c. 1403

Arcade post (6/9) 1366(h/s), 1381(h/s), 1382(1), 1389(h/s), 1397(27), 1403(22C).

Site Master 1254-1403 (t = 7.2 LONDON; 6.8 CHICKSANDS PRIORY, BEDS; 6.6 QUEENS HEAD, OXON)

The barn has been described as 'the queen of Kentish barns' (S. E. Rigold, 'Some major Kentish timber barns' Archaeologia Cantiana, 81 (1966), 1-30). Built on a high flint plinth, it comprises fourteen bays, which are aisled on both sides and at the ends. The arcade posts are on cills at a lower level than the wall cills. The barn falls into Rigold's "Class 1" type, barns with passing shores and crown post roofs. Due to a number of archaic features used in its construction, such as splayed scarfs with 'keys', extra stiffening in the spandrels of the arch-braces and 'reversed assembly' in the aisles, Rigold dated the barn to around 1300. However, developments of stylistic/typological data since Rigold's paper has led to it been suggested that c. 1400 is more likely, a date supported by dendrochronological analysis.


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ASHBY PAVA, Church of Saint Peter (SP 525 887)

Felling date range: 1635-55

Frame head (5/5) 1614(h/s), 1621(h/s), 1622(h/s), 1624(2c+c8NM), 1625(h/s); Jack brace (1/4) 1630(14); Sill(1/3) 1615(h/s); Brace (3/4) 1609, 1630(6), 1632(13).


Simple jack-braced, pegged oak frame for three bells, with four trusses, of one build. This frame is slightly unusual in that the sills of the trusses are mortised into the sills of the end frames. Tree-ring analysis supports the stylistic dating to the 1630's

ASTON FLAMVILLE, Church of St. Peter (SP 463 028)

Felling date range: after 1636

Beam (2/2) 1574, 1620.

Site Master 1475-1620 (t = 7.2 E. MID; 7.4 ALFORD MANOR, LINCS; 7.2 KEYWORTH BARN, NOTTS)

At this church there is not a 'bellframe' as such, just these two substantial moulded oak beams between which the bells simply hang. Fluted on all sides they are thought to have been reused from a previous phase of building. Due to the carving and slightly rotted surface it has been impossible to get a more precise date.

BRINGHURST, Church of St. Nicholas (SP 841 922)

Felling date range: 1693-1711

Frame head (3/5) 1552, 1606, 1664(h/s); Sill (5/5) 1626, 1632, 1672(h/s), 1677(3), 1687(9); Brace (5/5) 1658, 1679(h/s), 1681(h/s, 1), 1692(15);


A jack-braced, pegged oak frame with four trusses attached to the end frames with lapped dovetail joints at the sills. Previously thought on stylistic grounds to be dated to the early seventeenth century.

GAULBY, Church of St. Peter (SK 695 010)

Felling date range: after 1701

Frame head (1/7) 1686(h/s); brace (0/1); Sill (0/2).

Site Master 1623-1686 (t = 6.6 ELY CATH, CAMBS; 5.3 SOUTHWELL MIN, NOTTS; 5.1 BLIDWORTH CHURCH, NOTTS)

An oak frame for six bells, with four parallel pits and two transverse and of one build. Unfortunately tree-ring analysis was not very successful at this site, with only one timber dating. However the felling date of after 1701 does not contradict the stylistic dating of mid-eighteenth century to which the bells, thought contemporary, also date from.

GRIMSTON, Church of St. John the Baptist (SK 685 219)

Felling date range: 1628-48

Frame head (5/6) 1582, 1618(h/s), 1623(7), 1742(h/s), 1749(4); Jack brace (0/2); Brace (1/4) 1754(8); Strut (0/1); Sill (1/1) 1741(h/s); Wall timber (2/2)1582, 1619(12).


A jack-braced frame at louvre level, with four trusses. Of one build originally, the analysis here supports the stylistic dating to the 1630's. Additionally there are later replacements to the timbers of one of the trusses between 1759-79.

KNIPTON, Church of All Saints (SK 825 311)

Felling date range: 1489-1502 (probably 1491/2)

Post (4/7) 1468(1), 1470(9), 1474(9), 1480(14); Brace (6/6) 1458, 1462(h/s), 1468(h/s), 1469(h/s), 1471(h/s), 1488(17); Sill (1/3) 1490(15C+1 or 2 lost).


One of the most interesting bellframes in Leicestershire, this oak frame for three bells is of short headed queen-post type (ie double king posts) Pickford type 3.G, similar to bellframes at Lambley and Bramcote, Notts.all truss short heads are not pegged to the king posts or braces but held by nailed straps, which have a top-threaded section and a nut.

KNOSSINGTON, Church of St John the Baptist (SK 810 101)

Felling date range: 1732-52

Frame head (2/3) 1717(h/s), 1721(6); Post (0/1); Sill (2/3) 1715(h/s), 1718(1); Brace (2/3) 1719(h/s, h/s).

Site Master 1662-1721 (t = 6.5 MAIN ST, COSBY, LEICS; 6.2 CATHOLME, STAFFS; 5.6 E.MID)

A simple pegged oak frame for one bell. It only has two trusses and has extra jack braces and sits directly on the belfry floor. Tree-ring analysis supports the hypothesis that the frame dates from the recasting of the bell in 1731.

MUSTON, Church of St John the Baptist (SK 829 379)

Felling date: 1611

Sill (5/5) 1575, 1585(h/s), 1588(h/s), 1596(h/s), 1611(21C); Brace (7/7) 1560, 1571, 1580, 1590(h/s), 1592(h/s), 1605(21C), 1607(12); Frame head (7/7) 1575, 1583(-,h/s), 1587(h/s)1590(h/s,h/s), 1591(h/s), 1595(h/s); Jack brace (5/5) 1590(h/s), 1601(2), 1602(8), 1607(9), 1611(36C).

Site Master 1437-1611 (t = 9.2 E. MID; 8.7 STONLIEGH ABBEY, WARWICKS; 7.9 TUSMORE GRANARY, OXON)

There are two almost identical bell frames at this site, each for two bells, one above the other, both of jack-braced construction with three trusses. The high degree of matching between samples from both frames points towards these being contemporary, as is suggested by structural analysis also.

REARSBY, Church of St Michael (SK 651 145)

Felling date range: 1705-25

Jack Brace (1/4) 1531; Frame head (5/6) 1657, 1689(h/s), 1692(h/s), 1693(4); Brace (0/4); Sill (1/1) 1691(h/s).


A Jack-braced oak frame for three bells, with four trusses. The braces are less substantial than on some frames which led to it been stylistically dated to the early to mid eighteenth century, an assumption supported by tree-ring analysis.

SHENTON, Church of St John the Evangelist (SK 387 003)

Felling date range: 1481-1501

Brace (3/8) 1467(h/s), 1471(h/s, h/s); Frame head (2/3) 1460(h/s), 1462(h/s); Strut (0/1).


A jack-braced oak frame for three bells. This frame is unusual in that it has two parallel pits and a transverse pit across the end, rather than the usual three parallel pit form. Within the frames timbers are four curved braces that clearly come from an earlier medieval frame, no other timbers show any sign of reuse at all. It was thought that these represented reused timbers in an otherwise seventeenth century frame, however in light of the analysis here, where all the dated timbers come from the late fifteenth century, it this obvious that this assumption needs reassessing.

WELHAM, Church of St Andrew (SPP 477 293)

Felling date: spring 1634

Frame head (3/3) 1608(h/s), 1623(16), 1633(22╝C); Jack brace (3/3) 1607(h/s, 1), 1624(17); Sill (4/4) 1609(h/s), 1616(9), 1620(11), 1628(22); Brace 1560, 1609(h/s), 1612(h/s), 1629(18), 1630(23).

Site Master 1443-1633 (t = 10.9 NUN APPLETON HALL, YORKS; 10.2 BOLSOVER CASTLE, DERBYS; 10.0 E. MID)

A jack-braced, pegged frame for two bells with three trusses. Originally there were three bells here and the frame has been cut down at the eastern end where the third bell was removed. One of the samples analysed had complete sap wood and the beginnings of spring growth cells for the following year, thirteen of the over fourteen samples dated are consistent with this date, giving us the felling date above.

KIBWORTH HARCOURT, Kibworth Harcourt Post-Mill (SP 689 944)

Felling date: 1773

Site Master 1582-1773 (t = 11.5 Stoneleigh Abbey, Warwicks; 10.6 East Midlands; 9.7 Quenby Hall, Leics)

This is the only surviving post-mill in Leicestershire, and one of only 48 of the type in the entire country. It has two common sails and two sprung sails, upon a mid-to late-nineteenth century brick roundhouse at its base. The structure comprises basal timbers of two horizontal beams forming an 'X', from which rises the central mill-post. This supports two parallel north-south beams (connected by short east-west cross-beams either side of the central mill-post), which run to wall plates at their north and south ends. The north and south wall plates in their turn support further wall plates to east and west. Upon these four wall plates stand four corner posts which form the basic box-like structure of the upper portion of the mill which contains two floors. The structure of the upper level of the mill is of simple close-studded framing comprising the four principal corner posts, smaller wall posts and studs. These walls are clad in relatively modern oak and softwood weatherboard cladding. A. J. Arnold, R. E. Howard, and C. D. Litton, 'Tree-Ring Analysis of Timbers from Kibworth Harcourt Post-Mill, Kibworth Harcourt, Leicestershire', CfA report 76/2004.


BROCKLESBY, Brocklesby Hall, The 'Strong Room' (TA 137 113)

(a) Ceiling Felling date ranges: 1712-15; 1725-40

(b) Lintels Felling date range: 1725-40

(c) Reused timber (possibly earlier phase) Felling date range: 1560-1580

(a) Bridging beam (1/1) 1709(23c); Common joists (6/8) 1701(h/s); 1702(h/s); 1704(h/s; h/s); 1711(13); 1723(20);

(b) Lintels (2/2) 1696(h/s); 1701(h/s).

(c) Lintel (1/1) 1543(h/s).


Brocklesby Hall is of three storeys with parapets; the main, east, fašade of two-five-two bays. It is thought to have been constructed at the beginning of the seventeenth century and rebuilt c 1730, though it has a complicated architectural history, including a major fire in the late-nineteenth century and substantial alterations in the later-twentieth century. Internally, very little, if anything, appears to remain from before 1730. However, recent removal of modern plaster and ceilings from what is known at the 'strong room' on the ground floor to the north-east of the house revealed a spine beam and a series of common joists and a number of lintels in the walls. Most of these appear to belong to the 1730 phase, but some of the lintels are probably remnants of the original hall. Sampling and analysis commissioned by Pre-Construct Archaeology (Lincoln) on behalf of the Brocklesby Estate.

SOUTH KESTEVEN, Church of All Saints, Main Street, Fenton (SK 878 506)

Felling date range: after 1632

Tiebeam (0/6); Ridge beam (0/4); Purlin (0/5); Rafter (0/9); Roof board (4/6) 1529, 1590, 1616, 1617.

Site Master 1434 - 1617 (t = 9.8 MANOR HO, SUTTON IN ASHFIELD, NOTTS; 9.2 MANSFLD WOODHO, NOTTS; 9.1 EAST MID)

A traditional style village church comprising of the remains of several periods. The earliest being two bays of a Norman arcade to the north side, the pillars having scalloped capitals. A Transitional period (late twelfth century) doorway pierces the south arcade, whilst the west end tower, with clasping buttress, is probably fifteenth century, as does the nave roof it is thought. The south aisle roof is dated by an inscription to 1652, and the chancel was rebuilt in 1838 and further restoration works at the church in 1875.


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POTTER HEIGHAM, St Nicholas' Church (TG 419 199)

North Aisle Roof Felling date: 1533-58

Aisle plates (2/3) 1515(h/s), 1519(h/s); Common rafters (2/3) 1514, 1520(h/s); Braces (3/4) 1463, 1474, 1479; Wall post (1/1) 1516(h/s); Undated: Principal rafter.


The church is thought to have origins in the twelfth century, with the nave and aisles of the thirteenth century, though re-roofed in c AD 1500; the nave is covered by a fine hammerbeam roof. The north aisle roof is about 50 years later than expected. It comprise nine principal rafter trusses which are supported by aisle plates and arcade plates, these principal trusses alternating between those which are braced and those which are not, the braces themselves springing from wall posts. The braces springing from the posts of the nave walls are arched, while the braces springing from the posts of the outer walls of the aisle are kneed into the junction between the principal rafter and the wall post. Between each principal rafter runs a single purlin.


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CORBRIDGE, Aydon Castle, the Latrine Block (NZ 002 663)

Felling date range: 1541/45

Principal rafter (6/6) 1518(1), 1538(20c+2-3lost), 1541(29C, 25C, 24C, 23C); Purlin (2/2) 1531(4), 1541(13C); Attic floor beam (3/4) 1505, 1518, 1545(18C); Common joist (2/2) 1450, 1520(h/s).

Site Master 1406-1545 (t = 10.3 1-2 THE COLLEGE, DURHAM, TYNE & WEAR; 8.1 AYDON CASTLE, N.HUM; 7.0 NETHER LEVENS HALL,KENDAL, CUMB); 1398-1450 (t = 6.8 HORBURY HALL, W. YORKS; 6.2 S. CEN SCOT; 5.3 LOUNGEPIT, LEICS)

Built in the late thirteenth century, the castle has seen numerous repairs and modifications through the fourteenth century. After falling into disrepair the castle eventually came into possession of Cuthbert Carnaby in 1543, after his older brother Sir Reynold died, who immediately began a programme of repairs and alterations to the castle. The earliest part of the surviving building is the hall, the chamber block and the projecting garderobe wing. The roof of the latrine block is thought to be a later replacement of a more steeply pitched, typical earlier medieval common-rafter type (as evidenced by traces in the face of the east wall of the solar block). The roof seen today has three principal rafters trusses with purlins and nailed collars, although empty mortices for collars are obvious. The floor frame is of three and a half bays. All structural evidence points to the roof and the attic floor representing a single construction phase. Therefore the dendrochronology data is interpreted as evidence for preparations for the repairs/alterations (in the form of felling trees) having been begun in 1541 when Sir Reynold took possession of Aydon, but only begun under Cuthbert in or soon after 1545.

PRUDHOE, Prudhoe Castle Gates (NZ 092 634)

Felling date range: 1459-84

Post (3/3) 1414, 1435, 1440; Rail (6/9) 1409, 1417, 1427, 1435, 1440, 1444(h/s); Unknown (1/1) 1410.


Archaeology and historical records combine to show that the site of Prudhoe Castle has been in use since the mid-eleventh century. The gates under investigation here are from the castles main gateway. They were removed and dismantled in c.1980 and are at present awaiting repair and re-hanging. Both gates are portcullis braced, with ledges dovetailed to the hanging and open stiles. From the carpentry used in construction they had previously been assigned to the mid-fourteenth century (J. Gedddes, Prudhoe Castle Gates,unpubl. 1989). In light of the dating analysis here, construction is likely to have been more than one hundred years later than previously thought.

HEXHAM, 17 and 19 St Mary's Chare (NY 396 640)

(a) Number 17 Felling date: 1682

(b) Number 19 Felling date: 1689

Site Master (a) and (b) 1536-1689 (t = 7.5 England; 6.7 Staircase House, Stockport, Greater Manchester; 5.7 15/17 St John's Street, Wirksworth, Derbys)

Numbers 17 and 19 are a pair of inter-related town houses on the west side of St Mary's Chare, formerly one of the principal streets of the town of Hexham. Number 17 comprises a four-bay, two storey, north-to-south block, with attics, fronting the street. The crucks of the front range roof of number 17 are jointed with collars and double purlins. The crucks in the other three ranges are made from single curved timbers in the form of true crucks. Whilst the front range of number 17 and both front and rear range roofs of number 19 employ double purlins, the rear range roof of number 17 has only single purlins. A. J. Arnold, R. E. Howard, and C. D. Litton, 'Tree-Ring Analysis of Timbers from 17 and 19 St Mary's Chare, Hexham, Northumberland', CfA report 51/2004.

HEXHAM, Market Place, Moot Hall (NY 936 641)

(a) Reused roof timbers Felling date: c 1379

(b) Roof Felling date: 1539

Site Master (a) 1244-1378 (t = 5.8 South Central Scotland, 5.9 Finchale Priory Farmhouse, Durham, 5.6 Kepier Hospital, Tyne and Wear), (b) 1341-1539 (t = 7.5 East Midlands, 12.0 Aydon Castle (Latrine block), Corbridge, Northumberland, 8.0 Bull Hole Byre, Durham)

An inverted letter 'T' in plan, the Moot Hall is a rectangular three-storied block, with a taller tower attached to the south end of each face. The basement consists of a single chamber with a segmental barrel vault and entrance on the east side beneath an external staircase. This L-shaped external stair is the main access to the upper floors of the building. The ceiling of the first-floor apartment has four old transverse beams carrying joists of a much later appearance. The old beams are potentially reset as there are infilled sockets immediately below them and they also have empty mortices for a different set of joists. This first floor was a single apartment, but the north end is now partitioned off to form an entrance lobby and stairwell to the second floor. The second-floor hall has a largely rebuilt fireplace in its west wall and is open to the roof. The low-pitched roof is of eight bays with large tiebeams carrying deeply trenched purlins and ridge. This roof is thought to be the product of a single phase of construction, but it contains a number of timbers that show signs of reuse. A. J. Arnold, R. E. Howard, and C. D. Litton, 'Tree-Ring Analysis of Timbers from the Moot Hall, Market Place, Hexham', CfA report 41/2004.


MISTERTON, Ravens Farm, 8 Church Street (SK 7636 9486)

(a) Phase one building Felling date range: 1634

(b) West wing Felling date: 1482 (reused)

(a) Inglenook mantle beam (1/1) 1600(5); Bridging beam (2/2) 1577, 1634(29C); Tie beam (1/1) 1614(1); Wall plate (3/3)1606, 1615(2), 1619(h/s); Corner brace (1/1) 1619(h/s); Rafter (0/2); Collar (1/2) 1627(10c); Purlin (2/2) 1619(6), 1627(6c).

(b) Collar (0/1); Purlin (0/2); Rafter ((0/5); Bridging beam (1/2)1482(11C); Ceiling joist (0/3).

Site Master (a) 1482-1634 (t = 7.7 WHITE HO, NOTTS; 6.8 UNTHANK HALL BARN, DERBYS; 6.7 ENGLAND); (b) 1426-1482 (t = 5.9 HAGWORTHINGHAM CHURCH, LINCS; 5.8 E.MID; 5.4 ORDSALL HALL, CHESHIRE)

This Grade II listed building is of two storeys and two bays and is 'l-shaped' in plan. It is of rendered brick with a steep pitched pantile roof, dentilated eaves and two brick coped gables. The south front has a central plain sash, flanked by a single plain sash, with two plain sashes above. The one sample from the west wing that dated is considered reused, as this wing is shown by construction evidence to be later than the phase one part of the building.

NUTHALL, Low Wood Road, Hempshill Hall (SK 514 445)

(a) Hall and stud partition Felling date: 1497

(b) East extension and smoke-bay Felling date: 1500

(c) North-west range Felling date: 1702

(d) Mantel beam, breakfast room Felling date: c 1600

(a) Common rafters (3/3) 1445; 1474(h/s); 1476(h/s); Collar (1/1) 1497(28C); Purlin (1/1) 1451; Truss studs (2/2) 1468(h/s); 1486(15); Principal rafters (2/2) 1473(h/s); 1474(h/s); Partition studs (6/7) 1431; 1437; 1438; 1464(h/s); 1465(h/s); 1470(h/s);

(b) Stud posts (3/3) 1463; 1479(5); 1500(16C); Wallplates (2/2) 1482(6); 1500(24C); Tiebeam (1/1) 1500(20C); Wall post (1/1) 1467; Principal rafter (1/1) 1494(10); Purlins (2/2) 1480(12); 1487(19);

(c) Common rafters (2/2) 1677(h/s); 1702(23C); Principal rafters (2/2) 1702(23C; 23C); Purlins (4/4) 1674(h/s); 1681(h/s); 1702(32C; 33C);

(d) Mantel beam (1/1) 1571(h/s).


Hempshill Hall has a roughcast fašade, with walls of stone and brick encasing a much altered and extended double pile house. Within is an extensive seventeenth century timber-framed structure. The timber framing of the hall range is evident internally at first floor level and in the roof; this comprises principal rafter trusses with tiebeams and collars, dividing the building into three bays. The trusses support single purlins with wind braces to each pitch, these in turn supporting a series of common rafters. The trusses are filled by close-set studs. At the east end of the Hall range is a further, timber-framed section, interpreted as a narrow smoke bay, with a further fourth bay beyond, this being shorter than bays 1-3. This portion of the house is at a slightly different level to the main building and there is structural evidence to suggest that this element is of a different, probably later date. However, the dendro-dating indicates that it was constructed no more than a few years later. The mantle over the fireplace in the hall was felled in c 1600. At the north-west corner of the hall is a further timber-framed range (c) which is now known to be constructed from timbers felled in 1701. Sampling and analysis was commissioned on behalf of the owners.

RUSHCLIFFE, The Pigeoncote (SK 7650 4541)

Felling date range: 1535-55

Door jamb (2/2) 1494, 1502; Lintel (1/3) 1433.

Site Master 1432-1502 (t = 5.7 E.MID; 4.7 GABLES, LIT CARLTON, NOTTS; 4.7 MANS WOODHO, NOTTS)

This pigeon (or dove) cote is sixty feet high and nearly thirty-one feet in diameter and is thought to be the largest of three similar buildings in Nottinghamshire. The body is of coursed rubble and dressed stone with chamfered string coursing. The conical roof is of plain tiles and is topped with a square lead cap. All the samples analysed were taken from the oak door frame, and while this dated considerably later than the thirteenth/fourteenth century date postulated for the pigeoncote, it should be remembered that there is a possibility that the doorway maybe a later insertion/replacement. This work was commissioned and paid for by Nottinghamshire County Council's Heritage Team.

SNEITON, St Stephen's Church (SK 584 396), Bellframe

Felling date: 1654 Braces (3/3) 1617(h/s); 1650(09); 1654(24C); Jack brace (2/2) 1646(08); 1654(38C); Head beams (3/3) 1603; 1606; 1627(h/s).

Site Master 1484-1654 (t = 12.3 EAST MIDLANDS; 9.0 SINAI HOUSE, STAFFS; 8.5 BOLSOVER CASTLE, DERBYSHIRE) This oak bellframe for three bells is of jack-braced design, Pickford type 6.A and sits directly on the belfry floor. The three parallel bell pits are aligned north-north-east to south-south-west, set roughly square within the tower. Each truss consists of a bottom sill, head beam, and two curved braces with the end frames having jack braces in addition to the curved braces.


No sites have been added yet for Ox


SOUTH LUFFENHAM, South Luffenham Hall (SK 945 015)

(a) Ground Floor Felling date range: 1330-50 (reused)

(b) Main roof Felling date : 1695

(c) Coach house Felling date: 1709 and 1764

(a) Reused beams 1307, 1316(1).

(b) Principal rafter (2/4) 1669(h/s), 1693(9c+); Tiebeam (1/1) 1694(23╝C); Hip rafter (1/1) 1694(23C); Rafter (2/3) 1694(23C), 1695(10C); Purlin (1/2) 1695(26C).

(c) Ceiling beam (2/2) 1709(6C), 1764(17C).

Site Master (a) 1239-1307 (t = 5.2 SANDWELL PRI, W.MID; 5.0 E.MID); 1227-1316 (t = 4.9 BUTTER MARKET, OXON; 4.8 DUNSTABLE). (b) 1586-1695 (t = 5.3 SOAR LA, SUT BONN, NOTTS; 5.1 NUN APPLETON HALL, YORKS). (c) 1594-1709 (t = 7.7 E.MID; 6.3 WHEATSHEAF, NOTTS); 16743-1764 (t = 7.3 BURGHLEY HO, CAMBS; 6.6 MAIN ST, COSBY, LEICS).

This is a grade II listed small country house, square in plan it has two and a half storeys and a basement of five mullion and transom windows with moulded stone frames and sills. It is built of ashlar and coursed squared stone with plinth, rusticated quoins, stone bands and dressings, coved eaves cornice and hipped Collyweston slate roof with two symmetrical moulded stone ridge stacks of four linked flues each. The early dated timbers from the ground floor, both moulded beams, one from the kitchen and one from the cloak room, are considered reused, and do not alter the previous assignment of the hall to the late seventeenth century, with which the analysis of the roof timbers concur. Tree-ring analysis would suggest that the coach house is probably slightly later than the main house, but the individual dating of the two samples gives little definite data. This work was commissioned and paid for by the owners.


No sites have been added yet for Shrop


SOUTH CHARD, Post Office Lane, Springfield (ST 329 051)

Felling date: 1445

Site Master 1366-1443 (t = 5.3 Southern England and Wales; 6.2 Ightfield Hall (barn), Shropshire; 5.5 Naas House, Lydney, Glos); 1384-1445 (t = 6.1 Cathedral Barn, Hereford, Herefordshire; 4.9 Combermere Abbey, Cheshire; 5.1 Cradley Village Hall, Herefordshire); 1366-1445 (t = 7.0 Cottage Farm, Easthope, Shropshire; 6.2 Combermere Abbey, Cheshire; 6.0 Clunbury Church, Shropshire)

Springfield is a through passage plan house of three rooms, originally open to the roof from end to end, and divided by low partitions. At a later date floors were inserted, although not at the same time; the hall remained open after the high end had been floored. In the early-seventeenth century a chamber was formed at the lower end of the house and a large kitchen fireplace built on the gable end. In the seventeenth century a floor and partition were inserted into the hall forming an axial passage behind an unheated central service room. In the early-mid eighteenth century the central service room was converted into a parlour and panelled, and a timber-frame chimney stack was inserted backing onto the through-passage. The building has a fairly standard side-pegged jointed cruck truss roof (of five trusses) with straight mortice and tenoned collar trenched purlins and a trenched diagonally set ridgepiece. A. J. Arnold, R. E. Howard, and C. D. Litton, 'Tree-Ring Analysis of Timbers from Springfield, Post Office Lane, South Chard, Somerset', CfA report 83/2004.

Wells Cathedral, (South-East Transept), St Catherine's Chapel (ST 552 459);

Roof Felling date: 1325

Site Master 1169-1325 (t = 9.7 Southern England; 8.9 Reading Waterfronts, Berks; 8.2 New Inn House, Kingswood, Glos)

When construction at Wells Cathedral began is not certain but work was certainly in progress by 1186 with the main body of the church largely complete by 1215. The south-east transept houses St Catherine's Chapel which has been dated on stylistic grounds to the early-fourteenth century, being thought, on documentary evidence, to be largely complete by c 1324. A. J. Arnold, R. E. Howard, and C. D. Litton, 'Tree-Ring Analysis of Timbers from the Roof of St Catherine's Chapel (South-East Transept), Wells Cathedral, Somerset', CfA report 64/2004.


CHECKLEY, Upper Tean, Tean Hall (SK 010 395)

(a) Cross-wing Felling date: 1569

(b) Hall Felling date: 1613

(a) Principal rafters (3/4) 1489; 1539(h/s); 1565(13); Purlins (4/5) 1506; 1534; 1536(h/s); 1569(30C); Queen strut (1/1) 1536(h/s);

(b) Principal rafters (6/6) 1554; 1575(h/s); 1592(h/s); 1593(h/s); 1595(4); 1609(50); Purlins (6/6) 1559(h/s); 1560(h/s); 1580(h/s,04); 1582(h/s); 1613(46C).


Tean Hall is a timber framed building, with a substantial 18th century brick and stone baroque extension. The timber framed parts of the Hall comprise a two-bay hall range, parallel with the street, with, at its west end, a cross-wing, gable end on to the street, also of two bays. The main walls are close-studded, with the hall range including a mid-rail. Both roofs have three principal rafter trusses with tiebeams and collars. The trusses carry single purlins to each pitch of the roof, carried on the backs of the principal rafters. The roof of the cross-wing appears to have had queen struts between the tiebeams and principal rafters (most now removed), whereas the trusses of the hall roof lack them. Work commissioned by Staffordshire Moorlands District Council.

MIDDLE MAYFIELD, Old Farmhouse (SK 145 445)

Felling date range: 1558 (reused) 1603-41

Reused principal rafter (2/2) 1528(2), 1558(29C); Purlin (7/8) 1597(h/s), 1601(h/s), 1603(h/s), 1605(h/s), 1610(7), 1622(7,19); Collar (0/1); Stud post(0/1); Byre beam (0/1).

Site master 1414-1558 (t = 6.5 E. MID; 6.4 THATCHED COTT, HILL WOOTTON, WARWICKS; 6.1 SPEKE HALL, MERSEY);

1437-1662 (t = 12.8 E.MID; 10.4 STONELEIGH ABBEY HO, WARWICKS; 10.1 HILL TOP FARM, DERBYS); 1506-1662 (t = 6.3 WETTON CH, STAFFS; 5.6 NASS HO, GLOS; 5.6 CHEDDLETON, STAFFS)

This gabled, grade II* listed building consists of two storeys plus attics and is of three-room lobby entry plan. There is a gabled porch to the right of the centre with a four-centred arch. To the north of the main building is a lower, two-storey dairy extension. The roof trusses have vertical studs between collar and tie-beam and have double trenched purlins. The timbers of one truss at the northern end of the roof, have a number of redundant mortices, while several of the purlins appear to have been 'turned' on their edges, and also have redundant peg holes and shadow marks suggesting a re-arrangement of at least part of the roof at some point. The dendrochronological evidence broadly concurs with previous dating estimates, based on stylistic and documentary sources, of 1620-30. This work was commissioned and paid for by the owners.


No sites have been added yet for Suff


ELMBRIDGE, West Molesey, St Peter's Church (TQ 134 684), Tower

(a) Floor Felling date range: 1504-22

(b) Roof Felling date range: 1518

(a) Beam (7/8) 1478(h/s, h/s); 1481(h/s); 1482(h/s) 1485(h/s); 1486(h/s), 1503(17). Undated: Supporting beams;

(b) Tiebeams (1/2) 1502(h/s); King posts (3/3) 1501(h/s); 1504(h/s); 1508(03); Principal rafter (1/1) 1518(14C); Purlins (3/3) 1481; 1490; 1494(h/s); Common rafters (2/3) 1496(01); 1512(15).

Site Masters (a) 1364-1503 (t = 5.6 ENGLAND, LONDON; 5.3 KENT; 6.2 HAYS WHARF, SOUTHWARK, LONDON);


The Grade II listed parish church of St Peter was rebuilt in 1843 but incorporates an earlier three-stage, battlemented tower. The stone and flint tower is Perpendicular in style and believed to have been erected in about AD 1420. The tower roof has three trusses, each consisting of a king post and principal rafters, with a ridge beam and a single purlin on each side. The bell-tower floor consists of eight heavy joists running east-west and three supporting beams running north-south.


LITTLE BAYHAM, Bayham Abbey, Dower House (TQ 649 365),

South-wing roof, reused timbers Felling date ranges: 1380-1405; 1560-85

(a) Principal rafters (5/7) 1363(h/s, h/s); 1364(h/s); 1366(04); 1373(h/s); Common rafters (2/13) 1534; 1550(05); Undated: Collars; Purlins.


The Dower House was the local residence of the Camden family until a new mansion was built to the north-west of the ruined Premonstratensian Abbey in 1870. The earliest surviving part of the building is the central or south wing, thought to date from c 1700. The house was enlarged by the addition of the north wing in about the second quarter of the eighteenth century. The roof over the south wing is of standard staggered butt-purlin construction with collar trusses and no ridgeboard. Much of the material is reused and a considerable proportion is soot stained. The north wing roof was sampled but not dated. Archaeology South-East, 1999 The Roofs of the Dower House, Bayham Abbey, Frant, East Sussex, Archaeology South-East rep, 1367

CHIDDINGLY, Chiddingly Place (TQ 541 143)

(a) Main building Felling date: 1573

(b) South-east range Felling date range: 1575/6

(c) Parlour range Felling date range: 1565-85

(a) Transverse beam (1/2) 1540(h/s); Joist (5/6) 1404, 1421, 1519, 1546(h/s),1573(13C); Tie beam (3/3) 1528(h/s), 1541(h/s), 1556(h/s); Cross beam (1/2) 1550(h/s).

(b) Ceiling beam (1/2) 1531; joist (4/4)1457, 1533(h/s)1540(h/s), 1550(1); Tie beam (2/4) 1554(h/s), 1559(h/s); Queen post (4/5) 1551(h/s), 1555(h/s), 1576(15C, 10C); Principal rafter (3/3) 1531(4), 1550(h/s), 1554(h/s); Purlin (2/2) 1775(16C, 23C).

(c) Tie beam (4/4) 1547(h/s), 1554(h/s), 1556(h/s),1562(6); Common rafter (2/2) 1520, 1540(h/s); Post (0/2); Purlin (1/1)1545(h/s).

Site Master (a, b, c) 1324-1576 (t = 8.2 LONDON; 7.2 KENT-88, 6.9 26 MANOR RD, DIDCOT, OXON); (b) 1474-1576 (t = 4.7 LONDN; 5.3 CHAWTON HO, HANTS; 5.2 AYRBERRLS); (a & b) 1223-1531 (t=6.7 England London; 5.8 Walnut Tree, East Sutton, Kent; 5.9 Horsmonden, Kent)

The main building, or farmhouse, of this E-shaped sixteenth century mansion has two storeys plus an attic and is of red brick with a hipped tiled roof and casement windows with mullions and transoms. The parlour range similarly had two storeys plus attic and was also built in red brick with a steeply pitched tiled roof, gabled at both north and south ends. The south-east range (the stables), is a similar but smaller building to the parlour range. Analysis would suggests a major campaign of construction by its founder, Sir John Jefferay, in the 1570's with the main range possibly pre-dating the parlour and south-east ranges by a few years.


Kenilworth Castle, Lord Leicester's Stables (SP 280 723)

(a) Primary construction Felling date range: 1659-84

(b) Reused timbers Felling date ranges: 1543-68; 1553-78

(c) Modifications Felling date ranges: 1613-38; 1623-48

(d) Possible repair Felling date range: 1690-1715

(a) Wall posts (6/6)); 1630(h/s); 1644(h/s); 1645(h/s); 1649(h/s); 1652(h/s; h/s); Principal rafters (2/2); 1635(h/s); 1641(h/s);

(b) Wall posts (6/6) 1525(h/s); 1526(h/s); 1530(h/s); 1531(h/s, h/s); 1538(h/s); Tiebeam (1/2) 1524(h/s); Principal rafters (2/2) 1524(h/s); 1532(h/s);

(c) Wall posts (3/3) 1598(h/s); 1599(h/s); 1612(4); Tiebeams (2/2) 1596(h/s); 1598(h/s);

(d) Principal rafter (1/1) 1675(h/s); Undated: Lintel.


(a), (c), and (d) 1539-1675 (t = 7.1 ENGLAND; 6.8 EAST MIDLANDS; 8.5 26 WESTGATE STREET, GLOUCESTER);

(b) 1354-1532 (t = 8.3 EAST MIDLANDS; 7.8 LONDON; 10.5 STONELEIGH ABBEY, WARWICKS);

(b) and (c) 1482-1599 (t = 5.1 ENGLAND; 4.9 EAST MIDLANDS; 7.7 STONELEIGH ABBEY, WARWICKS);

The stable is a long rectangular building, with a stone ground floor and a timber-framed first floor on three sides, fourth side being formed by the medieval curtain wall of the castle. There is a large central porch, with a barn door to the south in a secondary brick section and two more modest sized doorways to the north. The timber-framed first floor has decorative bracing to the front offering a representation of the ragged staff which forms a part of the Dudley's coat of arms, and which can be seen on much of the sixteenth-century fabric in the castle. The barn contains eleven bays. Almost all of the trusses are constructed from reused principal rafters which lower tenoned purlins, and upper clasped ones. As reused, the two tiers of purlins are mainly lodged on the backs of the trusses. The tree-ring dating results suggest construction of the present roof structure in or soon after 1659-84, utilising timbers from the original roof (1543-68) and also providing evidence of modification/repair in 1613-38 and 1623-48 with a further repair in the late seventeenth/early eighteenth century.

KINGSBURY, Kingsbury Hall (SP 214 963),

South, East, and West Ranges Felling date: 1563-4

Principal rafters (6/6) 1527(h/s); 1533(h/s); 1536(h/s); 1551(h/s, 02); 1562(31); Purlins (6/6) 1543(01); 1545(02); 1546(h/s;h/s); 1561(14); 1562(14); Tiebeams (3/3) 1548(h/s); 1562(30); 1563(26C); Common rafters (5/5) 1588; 1560(16,22); 1563(22C,25C); Common joists (12/15) 1540(h/s); 1541(h/s); 1545(h/s); 1547(09); 1549(08); 1553(13); 1561(05); 1562(21,26); 1563(18C,27C); 1564(26C); Main joists (4/4) 1535; 1538(08); 1547(h/s); 1563(21C); Joists (3/4) 1529; 1531; 1552(05).

Site Master 1391-1564 (t = 10.3 East Midlands; 12.9 Sinai Park, Staffs; 9.9 Naas House, Glos)

The Hall can be divided into four main component parts, termed the South Range; the East Range; the West Range; and the North Range, with the North Range being relatively modern. The South Range is the largest and is of two storeys with attics, but with the first floor level clearly being the most important. Superficially, it seems to be of one phase contemporary with the adjacent West and East ranges; however, there are indications that it incorporates the remains of an earlier building. The roof is evidently of a single phase - and also contemporary to the roofs of the adjacent West and East ranges. The trusses consist of tiebeams, principal rafters, a single collar, and a pair of fairly short queen struts to the principals. The queen struts form part of the framing for the side walls of the attic and only the section of the principals between their tops and the ceiling (directly under the collars) is carefully worked and chamfered. Hidden behind the plasterwork the major roof timbers are fairly crude. The trusses support two tiers of butt purlins. In the five eastern bays the lower purlins are supported by pairs of straight wind-braces, simply half-lapped into them. In the longer westernmost bay, both tiers were stiffened by longer curving wind-braces, though only one survives in situ. There is only a single, short - and possibly reused - wind-brace in the other long bay to its east - at the west end of the upper purlin. The design of this bay - set between the two masonry cross-walls below - is different to that of the others. The common rafters are trussed by collars above the ceiling and have bridled apex joints. Their feet are tenoned into substantial single wall-plates - the sections of which are joined by double-tenoned pegged scarf joints - and the roof covering was overhung from the wall faces by apparently primary timber 'sprockets' with moulded 'feet'.

The East Range is the smallest of the three older ranges. Structurally it is built at right-angles to both of the other ranges and effectively acts as a link between them. Its south wall is shared with the South Range and its west wall with the West Range. Consequently, only its east wall and north gable are external. As in the other two older ranges, its first floor was clearly the most important. The roof is of two bays at right-angles to the contemporary roof structures of the South and West ranges. This roof runs into the side of the former and the latter runs into it. The roof structure is virtually identical to that of the other two roofs, with trusses consisting of tiebeams, principal rafters, a single collar, and a pair of fairly short queen struts to the principals. The queen struts form part of the framing for the side walls of the attic and only the section of the principals between their tops and the ceiling (directly under the collars) is carefully worked and chamfered. The end truss is set immediately inside the coped gable and the trusses support two tiers of purlins hidden behind the side walls or ceiling - the lower ones originally stiffened by straight wind-braces, most of which have been removed.

The West Range is the second largest of those that make up the Hall, but probably the most complex. Because of the adjacent ranges little of this range is visible externally - apart from the west gable and a short return on the south side, and its north-eastern corner. At the eastern end this range has an odd junction with the East Range; it seems that it utilised the existing wall of that range for most of its east wall, but as its northern wall is set further forward, a new section of east wall was required to fill the gap. Oddly, this was not built in line with the western wall of the East Range, but slightly to the east of it. Although, as with the South Range, there are suggestions that the masonry carcass of this range could be of more than one phase, the gabled roof over it is evidently of a single phase. It is of four fairly regular bays, and runs into the cross-gabled roof of the East Range. Structurally, it is virtually identical to the roofs of the other two ranges. The roof structure is mainly hidden by primary lath-and-plaster ceilings and side walls. The trusses consist of tiebeams, principals, a single collar, and a pair of fairly short queen struts to the principals. The queen struts form part of the framing for the side walls of the attic and the only section of the principals between their tops and the ceiling (directly under the collars) is carefully worked and chamfered. Hidden behind the plasterwork the major roof timbers are fairly crude. The trusses support two tiers of butt purlins, the lower ones stiffened by straight wind-bracing. The common rafters are trussed by collars above the ceiling and have bridled apex joints and sprocketted eaves. Reference: Morriss, R K, 2005 Kingsbury Hall, Kingsbury, Warwickshire An Archaeological and Architectural Analysis and Recommendations for Restoration, Mercian Heritage Series No 243.

MIDDLETON, Middleton Hall (SP 192 980)

(a) North-east range Felling date range: 1530-55 / 1711-36

(b) Tudor barn Felling date range: 1591

(c) De Freville building Felling date range: 1646

(d) Main house, entry hall and south service range Felling date range: 1708-18

(a) Wall post (3/3) 1506, 1512(h/s), 1514(h/s); Upper storey post (2/2) 1503, 1521(2); Jetty joist (5/8) 1476, 1498, 1502, 1512(h/s), 1519(h/s); Reused beam (1/1)1564; Reused coving tie (2/4) 1653, 1662(h/s); Purlin (1/2) 1709(10); Tiebeam (1/1) 1693(8); Principal rafter (4/5) 1701(5), 1705(10,11), 1713(6).

(b) Door jamb (0/2); Stud post (1/2) 1556(h/s); Corner post (1/1) 1591(24C); Wall plate (0/3); Wall post (1/1) 1553; Tiebeam (1/1) 1567(h/s); King post (1/1) 1540; Window jamb (1/1)1562(h/s); Floor joist (0/1); Rafter (0/2).

(c) Ceiling beam (0/1); joist (4/5) 1570, 1584(h/s), 1621, 1622; Wall post (1/1) 1602(h/s); Cross-rail (1/2) 1591(3); Stud post (2/3) 1612(h/s), 1619(4); Tiebeam (1/1) 1646(29C); Wall plate (0/1).

(d) King post (1/5) 1682(h/s); purlin (11/13) 1666, 1687(3), 1690(h/s), 1702(11), 1703(12), 1706(14), 1708(16C), 1709(21C, 25C), 1710(28C, 1718(25C); Principal rafter (11/13) 1679, 1682(h/s), 1685(h/s), 1688(h/s, no h/s), 1693(3, h/s, h/s), 1695(2); 1705(16), 1709(20C); Valley rafter (1/1) 1694(h/s); Ashlar (0/2); Tiebeam (2/2)1709(14), 1715(18C); Pine timbers (0/11).

Site Master 1593-1718 (t = 9.1 COMBERMERE AB, CHESHIRE; 8.2 BREW HO YD, NOTTS);

1309-1646 (t = 10.8 E.MID; 9.7 ENGLAND);

1636-1713 (t = 7.0 ANGEL CHOIR, LINCOLN CATH; 6.5 E.MID);

1579-1662 (t = 7.2 FELL CL, DURHAM; 6.8 STAIRCASE HO, STOCKPORT)

This extensive collection of buildings, each of a different date and style, is set around a central courtyard with its entrance to the north. With its origins in the twelfth century, most of the surviving buildings date from the sixteenth century onwards, when the manor was in the hands of the Willoughby family. Building (a) is timber framed of close-set post and stud construction with mid rails. It is of two storeys, jettied to the north on scrolled plaster brackets, with, internally, long curved tension braces to the ground floor and short curved braces to the first. Building (b) is one of a number of out buildings at the hall. This substantial timber-framed barn has twelve bays of square panel framing with principal rafter with collar roof trusses set on main wall posts. Building (c) comprises part of the east range and is fully timber-framed in square panels. Believed to be on the site of, or possibly containing remains of, the chapel licensed in 1390 to Sir Baldwin de Freville. The main house comprises the greater portion of the west range and is the largest single element of the hall. It has a typical two storey early Georgian front of eight bays, framed by giant fluted pilasters, and its roof has three large bays. The large entry hall block is semi-detached and slightly set back, from the main house, at the west end of the north range. It is of double height beneath a hipped roof, formed of two king post trusses with struts. The south service range is attached to the southern end of the main house, and is of two storeys. Adjoining the east end of the service wing is what is believed to be an early fourteenth century portion of two storeys known as the 'stone building'. This building was sampled but unfortunately failed to date. Built of finely dressed sandstone, the upper floor having been carried on an internal offset. The door and window openings appear to include some twelfth century stonework, and it is covered with an arch-braced collar-rafter roof with ashlars set on wall plates. Blocked doorways at first floor level suggest it once adjoined further medieval buildings.

POLESWORTH, Polesworth Abbey Gatehouse (SK 262 025)

(a) Gatehouse proper; roof, walls, floor-frame, floor of mezzanine room Felling date range: late 1330s/early 1340s

(b) Annex; roof and its southern arm Felling date: 1582

(a) Braces (4/6) 1241; 1307(h/s); 1310(h/s); 1314; Posts (1/1) 1273; Arcade posts (1/2) 1326(13); Arcade plate (1/1) 1325(9); Tiebeams (2/2) 1308(h/s)/ 1331(25); Joists (12/15) 1245; 1294; 1301(h/s); 1315(h/s); 1316(h/s, h/s); 1317(h/s, h/s); 1320(4); 1336(34C); 1339(33C); 1342(20C);

(b) Purlins (5/5) 1561(14); 1582(17C,17C,21C,21C); Principal rafters (2/4) 1553(h/s)1568(18); Collar (2/3) 1487; 1582(28C); Common rafters (3/4) 1518; 1520; 1560(h/s); Undated: Stud.




The Gatehouse structure is in two distinct parts. The eastern part comprises the main carriageway opening and the adjacent pedestrian portal; with stone to the ground floor and a mainly timber-framed upper floor. A small, low room to the east of the pedestrian portal is interpreted as a gatekeeper's lodge. A primary doorway near the south-east corner of the building (to the rear) gives access to stairs which lead to the upper floor and a room at mezzanine level over the gatekeeper's lodge. The upper floor comprises a three-bay single-aisled structure with a crown-post roof of three trusses. One of the trusses was originally a closed partition, dividing the first floor into a two-room apartment. Bays 1 and II over the pedestrian portal and the gatekeeper's lodge, contained the larger superior room while bay III, above the carriageway opening, contained a smaller single-bay chamber. The larger two bay room had direct access from inside the abbey precinct via the stairs under the aisle roof; it also had a fireplace and a latrine. Adjoining the west end of the Gatehouse is the western part of the Gatehouse, which has a single-bay gabled projection to its south. The four trusses comprise tiebeams, single collars, and substantial principals, tapered at the top, with threaded purlins; all the trusses had three struts between tiebeams and collars. The south arm has two roof-trusses, with clasped purlins. At the gable apex is a finial bearing three dates, the earliest of which is AD 1583.


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BEWDLEY, 7 -9 Stourport Road (SO 787 754)

Felling date range: 1302-24

Purlin (2/3) 1294 (h/s), 1301(24); Brace (7/10) 1207, 1246, 1250, 1252, 1269, 1277(h/s), 1300(14); Tie beam (3/3) 1207, 1244, 1284(h/s); Stud post (0/1); Crown post (2/2) 1221, 1258; Wall post (1/1) 1235; Wall plate (1/1) 1285(h/s).

Site Master 1060 - 1301 (t = 9.0 CHICHESTER CATH, W. SUSSEX; 8.8 186/7 HORNIGLOW ST, BURTON UPON TRENT, STAFFS; 8.6 EAST MID)

The unassuming brick and rendered frontage of eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth century alterations to the building that is now numbers 5 (not sampled), 7 and 9 Stourport Road, hides what appears to have originally being an early-medieval two-bay open hall (no.7) with a two-bay cross-wing at the east end (no.9) and a single-bay cross-wing at the west end (no.5). The unexpected timber framing within is quite spectacular, often moulded, very squarely cut and well carpentered. The open hall is of base-cruck type, with cusped and moulded arch braces, topped with a crown post roof with a pair of scissor-braced rafters. The cross wing at the east end also has a crown post roof with scissor-braced rafters sitting atop a slightly chamfered tiebeam. Although no in depth investigation has so far been undertaken of number 5, the dating analysis of the timbers from numbers 7 and 9 would suggest that the open hall and the east cross-wing, at least, represent a single phase of construction in the first quarter of the fourteenth century.

NEAR UPTON UPON SEVERN, Croome D'Abitot, Croome Court, (SO 885 446)

'Red Wing', Roof Felling date: 1753

Site Master 1639-1753 (t = 11.4 Old Barn, Stratford upon Avon, Warwicks; 11.0 Quenby Hall, Leics; 10.2 Stoneleigh Abbey, Warwicks)

The 'Red Wing' is an L-shaped service range attached to the east end of the main house, and is thought to be part of the rebuilding of the early 1750s. The roof of the southern arm of the wing, adjoining the main house, is single pile. All but two of the trusses are plastered over. The principals have curved feet and rise from a tiebeam at floor level with straight collars just above attic ceiling level. Where the plaster has fallen away the pegged mortice for an original queen post in the top face of a collar can be seen. Each roof slope has a single tier of staggered square-set purlins which are built into the west wall of the main range. The roof of the east arm of the wing is double pile. The roof trusses have curved feet and square set purlins. The north end truss has strutted jowled queen posts linked by a ridge beam carrying the hipped end. Morticed into its south face and running most of the length of the range is a centre beam supporting the valley gutter. The two trusses to the south have strutted jowled king posts set alternatively and supporting one ridge only. A. J. Arnold, R. E. Howard, and C. D. Litton, 'Tree-Ring Analysis of Timbers from the roof of the 'Red Wing', Croome Court, Croome D'Abitot, Near Upton upon Severn, Worcestershire', CfA report 80/2004.


PONTEFRACT, Pontefract Castle, the Main Guard (SE 460 222)

Felling date: 1656

Principal rafter (5/6) 1631(h/s), 1639(8), 1647(17), 1656(28C, 30C); Collar (1/3) 1648(19); Purlin (5/5) 1608, 1629(h/s), 1634(h/s, h/s), 1645(9); Ceiling beam (6/7) 1638(17), 1649(20), 1656(27C, 30C, 32C, 26C); Bridging beam (2/4) 1656(19C, 34C); Ceiling joist (5/6) 1606, 1632(3), 1639(9), 1656(28C, 31C); Lintel (1/1) 1628(h/s).

Site Master: 1507 - 1656 (t = 9.5 EAST MID; 9.2 NUN APPLETON, W. YORKS; 8.3 SOAR LANE, SUTTON BONN, NOTTS)

The remains of Pontefract Castle barbican consist of a medieval polygonal bastion on the approach to the former west gate. On top of this is a building, running parallel with the castle approach, known as the 'Main guard'. Comprising of a principal structure with a smaller section at one end, which is sometimes referred to as the 'West Cottage'. The castle itself was demolished after the Civil War, with the Main Guard having suffered some damage as well. The building as it stands today is largely dated to shortly after the Civil War, with all dated timbers, from the basement, ground and first floors and the roof, cut in a single phase of felling. Though the stone work of the Main guard may include earlier elements.

SHEFFIELD, Norton, Grange Farm, Cruck Building (SK 370 812)

(a) Main building Felling date: 1599 (b) Spine beam, first-floor frame Felling date: 1610-30

Cruck blades (2/5) 1566(2); 1584(20); Stub tie (1/1) 1571(h/s); Yoke (1/1) 1599(23C); Wall posts (2/2) 1572(h/s); 1574(h/s); Tiebeam (1/1) 1525; Undated: Ridgebeam; Stud post ; (b) Spine beams (1/2) 1592(h/s);.

Site Master (a) and (b) 1436-1599 (t=8.4 OUTSEATS, DERBYS; 6.6 BRADFIELD, DERBYS; 6.4 EAST MIDLANDS)

Grange Farm contains a cruck-built range of two bays, attached to the east end of which is a stone built north-south range, the 'Parlour', of four smaller bays. All the buildings are in an advanced state of decay. Although only the north blade of truss 1 now remains in place, the three pairs of crucks appear originally to have formed trusses with full height blades held at the apex by yokes, the ridge plate being set 'diamond' fashion at the head of the blades; the blades support single purlins. All the trusses appear to have had full tiebeams at wallplate level. That of truss II has been cut through some time in the past, presumably to allow for the insertion of a door. This truss has a collar set a short distance above the tiebeam. The end trusses, I and III, appear very similar but lack collars. Sampling and analysis commissioned by John Samuels Archaeological Consultants of Newark as part of a desk-based assessment on behalf of Hallam Land Management Ltd.